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WHAT IS A BIOMARKER?

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FOR PATIENTS, CAREGIVERS AND ADVOCATES

Our understanding of cancer is always growing. Recently,
scientists uncovered new uses for biomarkers called MicroSatellite Instability High (MSI-H) or MisMatch Repair deficiency (dMMR). These biomarkers can be found in many different types of cancers.

Learn more about MSI-H/dMMR below and remember to ask your doctor if biomarker testing is right for you or your loved one.

WHAT IS A BIOMARKER?

Biomarkers may be used to better understand some of the characteristics of your cancer. Getting tested for biomarkers helps your doctor decide what options are right for you.

WHAT IS MSI-H/dMMR?

MSI-H is short for High levels of MicroSatellite Instability. dMMR stands for deficient MisMatch Repair. MSI-H/dMMR can occur when a cell is unable to repair mistakes made during the division process.

WHAT CAUSES MSI-H/dMMR?

Normal cells have a system that sees and repairs mistakes that happen when the DNA is copied. It’s called the mismatch repair system. Sometimes the system stops working properly. When this happens, errors in the DNA start accumulating and may cause cancer. MSI-H/dMMR can be hereditary or random.

IS MSI-H/dMMR ASSOCIATED WITH A SPECIFIC TYPE OF CANCER?

MSI-H has been found in many different types of cancer.

WHO SHOULD BE TESTED FOR MSI-H?

Patients should talk to their doctors to see if MSI-H/dMMR testing is appropriate.

HOW DO YOU TEST FOR MSI-H/dMMR?

Doctors use two types of tests to determine if MSI-H/dMMR biomarkers are present:

• Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) uses the tumor tissue from the biopsy

• Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests compare tumor tissue from the biopsy to a normal tissue to measure microsatellite instability

Both methods are tests readily available. So, ask your Doctor about biomarker testing, for MSI-H/dMMR specifically, today.

Source
www.keytruda.com

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