Ipi/Nivo is treating the immune not the Cancer itself with it’s two pronged attack
How Does Ipilimumab (Yervoy) Work?
CTLA-4 is a protein that sits on the surface of a T Cell, it’s job is to deactivate a T cell attack on healthy cells …
Ipilimumab blocks the CTLA-4 from deactivating the attack and allows thean increased immune response.
How Does Nivolumab (Opdivo)? Work?
PD-1 is a protein that sits on the surface of a T Cell, it’s job is to act as a fail safe when engaging with the suspect cell – If it detects a corresponding PD-L1 protein that sit on t he surface of health cells they bind and deactivate the T Cell attack
Tumor affected cells have learnt to express this PD-L1 protein on their surface when they detect an attack, thereby tricking the T Cells and avoiding an attack.
Nivolumab (Opdivo)blocks the PD-1 from detecting the PD-L1 thus allowing the attack to continue
Explains rationale and Benefit over Chemotherapy treatment with the new direction in cancer treatments of “Treat the Immune not the Cancer itself, this is changing survival in cancer.