Everyone has an immunology pathway 

Molecular Profiling

IHC – GENOMIC – GENETIC -BLOOD BIOPSY
“Immunotherapy is a penicillin moment in the history of cancer treatment, we are now seeing the word cure and immunotherapy in the same sentence for the first time.”

A PATIENT PERSPECTIVE

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Patient Cancer Tool Kit

Patient Tool Kit

Read this - Before committing to anything.
Patient Cancer Tool Kit

There are many more Laboratories and Facilities than listed here.
If you would like to add a Laboratory please use the form below.

Australasian Resource – Not for Profit

We provide information about pathology tests to help you manage your health and make the right decisions about your care…[Continue onto Website]

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Which is better?

For MSI and PD-L1 Tests
IHC or Molecular /Genomic Profiling

  • IHC is best:  Fast turnaround allowing quicker treatment response.
  • IHC and Molecular Profiling results agree 92% of the time
  • IHC is inexpensive
Understanding the differences
Immunohistochemistry Testing Details (IHC)
  • Cost: Inexpensive <$500.00
  • Time Frame: 3 – 5 Days
  • Biopsy tissue or brushing samples are tested – Brushing’s of a suspected tumour are often obtained in a ECRP investigative procedure.
  • This type of testing is often done “in house” providing valuable efficiency to discover vital information that influences treatment planning.
  • PD-L1 Expression
  • MSI-high which is identified by examining the MMR (Mismatch Repair)
  • MMR or dMMR – Mismatch repair status. “d” means deficient – absent 1 or more of MMR’s proteins.
  • MSI-high means 2 or more of the MMR proteins are absent. If one of those proteins is MLH1 then …
  • MLH1 investigation further establishes if there is a BRAF V600E mutation -This is common and typically confirms mutations origin as “Sporadic”
  • “Germline” is Heriditary or “Sporadic” is Epigentic/environmental, higher chance of Lynch Syndrome This helps your oncologist to know how to proceed.
  • BRAF is a gene produces the B-Raf protein that sends signals within the cells to direct cell growth.
Immunohistochemistry Testing for MSI-High
Molecular Profiling Details

Analysing both Genomic and Genetic profiles of your DNA and typically includes (IHC) immmunohistochemistry test.

  • Costs: Approximately $ 5000.00
  • Time frame: 3 Weeks
  • Specialised Laboratory
  • Provides a blueprint of what’s going on in a tumor. A Tumor Blueprint, for your Oncologist to help make more informed choices based on the genomic landscape inside the tumor.
  • Definition: Genomic Testing: Is more the epigenetic impact examination of the Genes and DNA mutations that are present and unique in a tumor and driving the growth of the cancer.
  • Definition: Genetic Testing: Examines the hereditary Genes that have been present since birth.
Foundation Medicine

How cancer begins, grows and spreads

More TMB @ Immuno 101
TMB is also a factor

Something to be aware of.
When the body has a dMMR/MSI-High environment it typically sees a higher TMB (tumour mutation burden) in the body and these tumours also have a strong correlation to higher expression of the protein ligand PD-L1 which anchors to the surface of the tumour cells.

Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB) refers to the total amount of cancer tissue in the body. The survival of a patient relates to the tumor mutation burden, disease location and most importantly, the pace of the disease. In general, patients with a high burden of tumors have a high pace of disease and therefore a very short survival without therapy.

More TMB @ Immuno 101
Liquid Biopsies

Clinical Labs Partner with the Garvan Institute

Australian Clinical Labs is a private laboratory in Australia which uses the latest Aspect Liquid Biopsy technology to detect the recurrence of cancer using cfDNA biomarkers for colorectal, lung and melanoma patients.

The process for patients is the same as a standard blood test which is non-invasive, pain free, and saves patients the time and cost of enduring a hospital procedure.

Aspect Liquid Biopsy will assist clinicians and help patients using advanced technology and a Personalised Medicine approach. Precision or Personalised Medicine harnesses genomic knowledge banks to tailor individualised treatments based on patients’, or their tumours’, genetic signatures…[continue to Clinical Labs]

Additionally click here to view a strategic “Genomic Partnership

Its all about healthy Cell Communication

Cancer is a genomic disease that co-opts normal cellular mechanisms to grow  and survive. One of these mechanisms is growth signaling. Cells turn on these signals when they are biologically necessary – for example, to heal a wound. Healthy cells turn these signals off when they are no longer needed.

Unfortunately, mutations in the genes that control these pathways can turn growth signals on and keep them on. Flooded with faulty messages, cells divide relentlessly, eventually forming a tumor.

Growth signaling is one of many pathways controlled by genes and, unfortunately, genes can be mutated. Cellular quality control mechanisms that safeguard DNA can also be altered. Once these are downgraded, more mutations can appear more rapidly. Other variations turn on genes that expel toxins from cells – this includes chemotherapy – or turn off genes that tell diseased cells to die, a mechanism called apoptosis.

Mutation is a random process. Some variations bring survival advantages to tumors, others may do nothing at all. However, as a result, each patient often has a unique set of variations that govern how their cancer grows and which treatments it will respond to.

Molecular profiling offers a blueprint of what’s going on in a tumor. Cutting-edge genotyping can determine which tumor genes are mutated and how that might affect a patient’s prognosis and treatment options. Armed with this Tumor Blueprint, physicians and patients can make more informed choices based on the genomic landscape inside the tumor.
Source: https://www.clearityfoundation.org/what-is-molecular-profiling/

Garvan Institute Announcement

New era in genetic disease diagnosis with Australia’s first whole-genome testing service to be launched today
The Garvan Institute of Medical Research’s Kinghorn Centre for Clinical Genomics will launch Australia’s first clinical whole-genome sequencing service at an event today in Sydney. This new service could triple the diagnosis rates for Australians living with rare and genetic conditions. …[continue reading]

Media Release: 27 July 2016, Garvin Institute
Cholangiocarcinoma Foundation
Must See Immuno Videos and Info
Immuno 101 for Patients

Cancer Tool Kits

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Cancer Tool Kits @ www.thepcancertoolkit.com
Cancer Tool Kits